Tuesday, December 4, 2012

ГЕНЕТИК

Балти орчмын хүн амын генетик хувьсахуй
Ази хэв маягын зарим генийн тэмдэгүүдтэй холигдсон умард Европын төлөөлөл бүхий генийн тэмдэг (улбар шар K=3). Тус загварчлал дээр дорнод Европын төлөөлөл болох Финчүүд илүү ноёрхох маягтайгаар (FIE) үзэгдэх ба бусад төрөл төст тэмдэгүүд цөөн харагдаж байна. Түүнчлэн Шведүүдийн зарим хэсэг нь цөөн хувьтайгаар дээрхи ижил төст тэмдэгүүдтэй холигдсон байдалтай гарчээ.

 Өөрөөр хэлбэл, дээрхи тэмдэгүүдийн нийлбэрт Британи болон баруун Африкийн төлөөлөл болох холимог хэв шинжүүд үүнд харагдаж байгаа юм (шар). Финчүүд нь тус зургийн цөөнгүй хэсэгт тодорч байхад, Шведүүдээр төлөөлсөн улаан өнгийн К-4 нь бусдаас давуу байдалтай гарчээ. 

Энэ график үзүүлэлтээр бол нилээд бууралттайгаар К-5 дээр гарсан бол нь өрнөд болон дорнод Финчүүдийг ногоон улаанаар тус тус холигдсон байдалтай судалгаагаар гарсан болно.
тус газар зүйн зураг дээр Ү хромосомийн судалгаагаар гаргаж ирсэн R1a1 хаплогруппийн ерөнхий үзүүлэлт бусдаас нилээд давамгай байдалтайгаар зарим хэсэгт харагдаж байна. 

Эх сурвалж: Tuuli Lappalainen, Human genetic variation in the Baltic Sea region: Features of population history and natural selection, doctoral dissertation, Helsinki 2009



ABSTRACT

Tuuli Lappalainen
In this thesis, the genetic variation of human populations from the Baltic Sea region was studied in order to elucidate population history as well as evolutionary adaptation in this region. The study provided novel understanding of how the complex population level processes of migration, genetic drift, and natural selection have shaped genetic variation in North European populations. Results from genome-wide, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal analyses suggested that the genetic background of the populations of the Baltic Sea region lies predominantly in Continental Europe, which is consistent with earlier studies and archaeological evidence. The late settlement of Fennoscandia after the Ice Age and the subsequent small population size have led to pronounced genetic drift, especially in Finland and Karelia but also in Sweden, evident especially in genome-wide and Ychromosomal analyses. Consequently, these populations show striking genetic differentiation, as opposed to much more homogeneous pattern of variation in Central European populations. Additionally, the eastern side of the Baltic Sea was observed to have experienced eastern influence in the genome-wide data as well as in mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal variation – consistent with linguistic connections. However, Slavic influence in the Baltic Sea populations appears minor on genetic level. While the genetic diversity of the Finnish population overall was low, genomewide and Y-chromosomal results showed pronounced regional differences. The genetic distance between Western and Eastern Finland was larger than for many geographically distant population pairs, and provinces also showed genetic differences. This is probably mainly due to the late settlement of Eastern Finland and local isolation, although differences in ancestral migration waves may contribute to this, too. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal analyses of the contemporary Swedish population revealed a much less pronounced population structure and a fusion of the traces of ancient admixture, genetic drift, and recent immigration. Genome-wide datasets also provide a resource for studying the adaptive evolution of human populations. This study revealed tens of loci with strong signs of recent positive selection in Northern Europe. These results provide interesting targets for future research on evolutionary adaptation, and may be important for understanding the background of disease-causing variants in human populations.

by https://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/44624/humangen.pdf?sequence=1