Monday, March 25, 2013

Чухам энэ бүс нутгаас Скифүүд, Бактри, Согдууд, Иранчууд, хожмын Аланчууд болон Европчууд гарсан.

R1a тэмдгийн тархалт (Ягаан), R1b тэмдэг (Улаан). У хромосом, түүний гурвалсан тэмдэг Европ болон Евразийн бүсүүдэд тархсан нь ажиглагдаж байгаа бол бусад тэмдэг бүрийг дан хар өнгөөр багцалж дүрсэлсэн Генетик газрын зураг. 


Эцгийн талаас удамшсан R1aY хромосомийн хаплогрупп R1a-ийн гарлыг Энэтхэгийн умард нутаг хэмээн үзэх хандлага ажиглагдах болсон. R1a1 хаплогруппыг орчин үеийн судалгаагаар Энэтхэгийн дээд кастын Брахманчуудын ген хэмээн үзэж байна. Энэ нь Индо Иранчуудтай холвоотойг давхар баталж өгчээ. Нөгөө өнцөгт бол R1a-ээс эхтэй R1a1 хаплогрупп нь дээд кастын Брахманчуудын дунд өндөр хувьтай байгаа. Индо-Европ хэлтнүүд баруун умард талаас түрж орсон бол өмнөд хэсэгт өвөг төрлийн хэлхээт Иранчууд Ари нэрээр Энэтхэг газрын эртний хүний генд нөлөөлөх түрэлтийг хүрлийн үед бий болгожээ. Хар тэнгисийн үржил шимт нутаг дамжсан нүүдлийн суурьшлийг үүтгэн болгохын зэрэгцээ бас генийн холилцоо өөр хоорондоо явагдсан байхыг үгүйсгэж эс чадна. Тодруулвал Энэтхэгийн Брахманчууд ижил Ү хромосомтой байна. Мөн хамгийн сонирхолтой баримт бол бидний өвөг дээдэс болох (Дийлэнхи Монгол судлаачдын хүлээн зөвшөөрдөг) Хүннүчүүдийн нэг хэсэг Индо-Европчууд болон Скифүүдтэй хил залган оршиж, Торгоны замд хөврөх олон үндэс угсаажилтын давтамж түрэлтэд уусах өндөр боломжийг Хятадын баруун умард нутаг (Дорнод Туркестан) талаас төрүүлж байсан бол засаг захиргаат ертөнцийг үүтгэн өмнөд болон Төв Сибирийн цөөнгүй хэсгийг ч мэдэлдээн байлгаж байсантай холвоотой генетик залгамж холвоо тухайн үед буйг дээрхи зураг харуулж байна. (MON) Генетик (Тэмдэг) бэлхнээ батлах бол тус ойлголтыг нэг үгээр Цэвэр угсаажилт-үндэстэн гэж байдаггүй гэх түүхийн ойлголт энэ өнцөгт эрхгүй хөндөх шиг. 

У хромосомт хаплогруп залгилаа нэг газарт төрж үүссэн болон генетикийн өөр хоорондийн төст бус тэмдэг буйг дүрсэлсэн зураг.

Төв Азийн баруун хэсэг буюу Хар тэнгис, Каспийн тэнгисийн хооронд болон умард талаас Индо-Европ хэлтний үүслийг авч үздэг бөгөөд тэд хожим МЭӨ 5000 жилээс МЭӨ 2000 жилийн үед баруун Сибирь, Дундад Ази, Баруун болон Баруун өмнөд Ази руу тархан нүүдэлсэн. Улмаар Европчуудын дийлэнх нь тус газраас үүсэлтэй юм. Энэ онолд Гимбутас, Мария (Lithuanian. Marija Gimbutienė) 1950-иад оны үед “Курган”-ны (Хиргисүүр) онолыг боловсруулж дэвшүүлсэн ба тус онолыг үндсэн дөрвөн үед хувааж үзсэн байдаг. Курган нь Болга, Днепр мөрний орчим ойролцоогоор МЭӨ 4000 жилийн үед хамаарах Самара (Samara) болон Сероглазов (Seroglazovo) зэрэг соёлуудад хамаарч орох бол эдгээр соёлууд нь мал аж ахуй эрхэлсэн нүүдэлчин овог аймгуудынх байсныг давхар нотолсон. Ойролцоогоор МЭӨ 3000 жилийн үед дорнод Европ руу түрж орсон  хүмүүс нь Понтик төхөлд хамаарах (Pontic-Caspian steppe) овог аймгууд гэж үзэх цөөнгүй судлаачдын баримтлал хэдийнэ гарчээ. Чухам энэ бүс нутгаас Скифүүд, Бактри, Согдууд, Иранчууд хожмын Аланчууд болон Европчууд гарсан билээ. Индо-Европ буюу Перс-Скиф Арийн ген хэмээгддэг Ү-хромсомын R1а1 хаплогрупп Дундад болон Баруун Ази (Түрэг болон Перс угсаатаны онцлог талийг тодруулвал Түрэг угсаатан нь эцгийн талаасаа Перс ястай, домгийн хувилбар... эхийн талаасаа Монгол төрхтөн Ашина чонын цустай бололтой) дорнод Европийн Индо Слав хүмүүс, Днепр, Дон мөрний хөндий, Скандинавт тархжээ. Хамгийн сүүлд Баруун Европт уг генийн давтамж ховор үзэгддэг болохыг тодруулсан байна.

Анхааруулга: Нэгэнтээ XVIII зууны үеийн Оросын түүхч Васи́лий Ники́тич Тати́ще “Скиф” хэмээх ойлголтыг түүхийн үүднээс цуглуулга үг хэмээн үзсэн байна. Тэрээр: “...өөр хоорондоо төстэй бус үлэмж тооны ард түмний ертөнцийг ерөнхийд нь Скиф нэр дор авч улмаар тус ойлголт дотор нь Слав, Сарматчууд болон Түрэг, Монголчуудыг мөн багтаана. Өөрөөр хэлвэл Ази болон Европын зүүн умард нутгийг хамаарсан бүсүүд орох юм. Гүнзгийрүүлвэл Герман, Перс болон Хятад хүмүүсийг хамтад нь нэрлэж оруулах нь оновчтой. Хэдий тийм боловч энэ ойлголтын цар хүрээ хожмоо X зууны үед бүр мөсөн үгүй болсон. Тухайн үед энэ ойлголтыг няцаах хэмжээний олны үйл ажиллагаа үүсч бий болсон хэдийч “Скиф” гэх тэдгээр зон олны ул мөр харинч түүхэнд бүр мөсөн арилж үгүй болоогүйгээр үл барам зарим газарт хэл, нэр усны баримтаар өнөөдрийг хүртэл баримт болж байгаа... XIII зууны үеийн түүхэнд Европчуудын хувиас Татар хэмээх нэрээр алдаршсан нь Скиф ертөнцийн ойлголтыг Татарын ертөнц гэх өнцгөөс харах үе эхэлсэн.”[1] гэжээ.
[1] Mirfatykh Z. ZAKIEV “TATARS: PROBLEMS of the HISTORY and LANGUAGE Collection of articles on problems of lingohistory; revival and development of the Tatar nation”. Kazan, 1995. Pp.12-37.
Gold mask, ca 5th-6th century CE. Excavated from Boma Cemetery, Ili, Mongghul Kura (Zhaosu) County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum.
Gold Plaque with Lion Design, 5th–3rd Century BCE, Excavated from Tomb No. 30, at Alagou (Alwighul, Alghuy), Toksun © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum Collection.
03,25,13

Reconfiguring the Silk Road: New Research on East-West Exchange in Antiquity
On March 19, 2011, the Penn Museum held a public symposium, the first major event in over fifteen years to focus on the history of the Silk Road and the origins of the mysterious Tarim Basin mummies. Since the last milestone conference was held on the topic at the Penn Museum in 1996, new archeological discoveries and scholarly advances have been made, creating a need to critically reshape the very idea of the “Silk Road.” Major topics of discussion include ancient transportation and economies, the origins of early westerners in Central Asia, the excavations of textiles in Xinjiang, and a reinvestigation of the Tarim Basin mummies. Distinguished speakers included David W. Anthony, Elizabeth Wayland Barber, Peter Brown, Michael D. Frachetti, Philip L. Kohl, Victor Mair, J.P. Mallory, Joseph G. Manning, and Colin Renfrew.
A full listing of all the recorded lectures are available on Penn Museum's YouTube channel.

The approximate present-day distribution of the Indo-European branches within their homelands of Europe and Asia
                                                       Scythian Vocabulary in the Sources
A. Chay Posting Introduction 
Not that we did not have a clue about the Scythian language, and Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev came to an empty land. Quite the opposite, a thousand year-long chain of statements originating with the geographers, historians, interpreters of the state diplomatic corps, traders, and eyewitnesses from every walk of life persistently stated that the new arrivals during Late Antique and Early Middle Age periods, i.e. the Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, and Türks, and the Badjanaks and  Kumans during the Middle Ages, were Scythians. Herodotus, and few other Classical writers brought to us few genuine words with translations, in due course they were found and analyzed. The Assyrian Cuneiform tablets were deciphered, and in 1870 a listing of the Scythian genuine words from the time of the Assyrian empire was published, a good quarter century before the philological equilibristic of Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev had begun.
The following citation of the 14 Scythian words from the work of A. Chay, who in 2002 republished the A.D. Mordtmann list of the Scythian words found in the Assyrian tablets is mirrored below, with a known English translation, and juxtaposed against readily accessible Turkish translation. The Turkish translation belongs to the Oguz branch of the Türkic language, separated from the Scythian originals by a time of 27 centuries and space of half Eurasia, and still the proximity of the modern Oguz and Classical Scythian is readily apparent. In the Oguz Türkic, only two words out of 14 on the list were replaced with unrelated roots. That apparency should have been known to Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev before they embarked on rewriting the history, and leave little room for sparing their good faith from questioning. For a scholarly analysis, a comparative philological data base would increase manifold, assembling cognates from both Ogur and Oguz branches, and the ancient forms that may not be in use any more, possibly allowing sufficient resolution to provide meaningful classification for the Scythian lexicon recorded by Assyrians, and expand the known lexical body by the later Near Eastern discoveries. It should also be noted that the nearest to the Assyrians, the Ishguza/Ashguza Scythians  populated Sakasena, called in today's literature “Scythian Kingdom“, the Azeri land in the today's Azerbaijan in the South Caucasia, etymologized as Sak + As + -an, i.e. the land of Saka Ases. That the Azeri land was a cradle of the Azeri language was noted by the Arabic traveler Ibn Hawkal (travelled 943-969, written in 977), who recorded that the Azeri language was a lingua franca in the Caucasus centuries before the Mongol invasion ostensibly brought the Türkic languages to the Caucasus. The modern city myth, composed by Russian colonizers, and embraced by modern Iranian officialdom, does not hold the water, and because it disfigures their own history, is counterproductive to their own objectives.
The Scytho-Türkic comparison of the words with known translations is a child's play, it is immediately and profoundly apparent, but the onomasticon is no less telling. Many names are readily apparent, like the Papaifor grandfather, Ani for mother, and Ata for father. The others, interpretation of which is a wild geese chase, in the Scytho-Iranian concoction were assembled with a span of the “IE” lexicon ranging from the Ossetic to Indian to Baltic to Celtic to whatever language happened to carry an IE label, with zero etymological depth. In contrast, the Türkic speculations are suggested exclusively from the Türkic lexis, without turning to other “Uralo-Altaic” or Altaic languages like the Korean, Fennic, or Japanese, and in numerous cases even that limitation suggests a choice of allophones. Expanding the choice to every imaginable “Uralo-Altaic” or Altaic language would create the same insane situation that took place with the Scytho-Iranian case, when every random word has somewhere a random isogloss. It would be a miracle not to find matches for any word of the onomasticon.
In his work, G.Dremov came to an extraordinary conclusion that after a hundred and fifty years of quasi-scientific work, no "learened Scythologist"-linguist bothered to compose (or publish) a list of the Scythian words: "As is seen, none of the above dictionaries containing remains of the Scythian language (V.I. Abaev, L. Zgusta, K.T. Vitchak, V.P. Petrov - ed.) does not satisfy the credibility and completeness criteria set forth above. Strange as it seems, the modern science of the Scythian language still has not developed a full and credible, agreed upon list of preserved traces of the Scythian language. As a first approach to solving the problem below is a list of 189 words, the origin of which can be unequivocally associated with the culture of the European Scythians in the Northern Pontic region of the 8th–3rd cc. BC. The bulk of this list is the lexicon drawn from the Scythian records of Herodotus. This list deliberately does not include the Saka, Massagetan, Sarmatian, or the Alan words. However, the list contains a few Cimmerian names, included on the grounds that the Cimmerians in the pre-Scythian age was essentially called the same autochthonous (Sic!-ed.) population of the North Pontic steppes, which later became known under a generalized name of the Scythians. The list includes the names of the Scythian epigraphical monuments of the Northern Pontic region, namely those which, on the one hand, have a transparent "Iranian" etymology confirmed by reputable linguists (i.e. the sampling is contaminated by tendencious selection - ed.), and on the other hand, belong to the Scythian period, i.e. were found on the stones of no later than the mid-3rd c. BC." But despite tendentious and untidy contamination, the G.Dremov's catalog provides the picture that was intentionally ignored by the other "scientists" (http://annales.info/skif/small/onomast.htm).
Since Goths are numerously identified by the Classical writers as Scythians, the list should be complemented by Gothic lexicon with attested translations, yet to be compiled. Ditto the Persian and Indian sources. On a glimpse of Chinese, see Sanping Chen Zhou Theophoric Names.
Api Goddess of the Scythian pantheon of gods. Herodotus identifies her with the Greek Gaia. Api name is directly associated with the Türkic “apai” - mother, mama (Api is a cognate of Tr. Ebi/Ebe, one giving birth, a precursor of Eve, and a perfect complement to biblical “adam” = Tr. man. A dialectal variation of Api would be Ami, via b/m alternation, which links it with exact match of the Scythian Api, the Tr. Tengrian deity Umai. The Greek analogue Gea is a primowomb, a grandmother of Zeus; so is Scythian Api and Türkic Umai (OTD 611). Umai cognates are “umai” = womb, “um” = stomach, “uma” = mama. Other Tr. cognates are “api/abi/aby/avy/apa/abba/aba/apai” = respectively mama/senior sister/mother's sister/father's senior sister/father's mother/appellation “madam“/husband's sister/woman. Semantically, Api is an apogee of motherhood and womanhood. For Iranian etymology, V.Abaev could not come up with any better than cite Uzbek and Tajik appellation “apa” = mother, senior sister, of all IE languages only the modern Tajiks adopted this ancient Türkic appellation Apa.).
Herodotus IV 59.


Arar - a river in Scythia, flows through the Scythian land, falls into a river Ister (Danube) (Tr. “aryk” - channel, stream. The list should have included the form Arax too, we have 2 major Araxes in the Scythian land, one Caucasian, and the other Uzboi, both flowing into Caspian).
Herodotus IV 48.
Arax - 2 major Arax rivers in the Scythian land, one Caucasian, and the other Amudarya channel Uzboi, both flowing into Caspian (Tr. “aryk” - channel, stream. The presence of two streams, both called Aryk in local Türkic language (Tokhar/Dahae, Masgut/Massaget), confused generations of scholars, even though Herodotus stated unequivocally that one of them in the east has only one channel, and that specifies Uzboi, because the other Arax flowing from the west has a developed delta with numerous channels. The translation of the Arax as “stream” did not escape the modern scholars, since a third river north of the Masguts/Massagets, the Syrdarya, was also called by generic “arax”.
Herodotus I 202 et al.
Caucasus - (addition to G.Dremin's list) mountains popular with Herodotus. In Türkic kau/ku/kuu is "white", the second part of words Caucas and Kroukas is -kas, it means in Türkic ‘rock, rocky mountain’. This is not even an etymology, it is a modern Türkic daily speech.
Herodotus 1.104 on

Oium (Oyum) - land in Scythia in Gothic (called Scythian by Jordanes) language, Jordanes uses it as a name for ethnic territory. The Türkic Tatar has the form of ömə “community, commune”, from “aid, communal help, volunteer help”, Khakas (originally Enisei Kirgiz) - öme or ime, from “joint effort, together, leagued”, with affix -ty/ly it serves as a tribal marker. With -b/m alternation, the word becomes öbə/öbe/ibe and is renderedoba, like in Toks-oba or Kara-Oba or Kos-Oba or Kul Oba or a myriad other Türkic toponymic examples, Obaly = people living in oba; thus oba is a cognate of English habitat, i.e. “place to live, native place, homeland”, and obaly is homefolk, kins. The Gothic Oium is identified with the shores of the Azov Sea, which in Bulgarian happened to be called Altyn Oba = Golden Homeland [H.Wolfram, Th.J.Dunlap, 1990, “History of the Goths”, p.42, n. 42], populated by Sarmatian Spali or Spalei of ten-tribe Onogur confederation
Jordanes 60,15 and 61, 1, “The origin and deeds of the Goths”


Opiya (Opoiya) - a wife of a Scythian king Ariapith, a Scythian. She bore the king a son Orik. After a death of Ariapith in 470 BC she was a co-ruler with the eldest son of Ariapith, Skill, to his adulthood. The name Opiya is sonorous with Opis, a Hyperborean young woman who visited the temple of Apollo at Delos

(“Apa” in Tr. is a female counterpart of male “Aga“. “Apa” is “senior, elder, senior sister, respectable woman“. A senior wife would be called “Apa” by all other wives and her husband. In a familiar appellation, like for an aunt or sister, “Apa” would be added to the name, Arga-apa, Shpako-apa, etc.

A separate ethnological marker is the institute of regents. Unlike all their neighbors, and especially in contrast with the mentality of the Indo-European people, the Türkic people held their women in high regard and a large degree of equality. Women participated in decisions of the state affairs, in the diplomatic receptions, in the state celebrations, in the selection of husbands, had full inheritance rights. Upon a death of a husband, and before an election of a successor, a widow was a default regent, and remained so until a maturity of an elected successor. She could defer the executive duties of a regent to her brother, usually a maternal uncle of the young king, who belonged to a maternal clan or tribe, and therefore himself was not eligible for succession. History left us a number of names of the reigning widow regents, some of them even headed an army in a time of a war. A head of the maternal clan Ermi was a regent, called “Gostun” in Nominalia, for the young Khan Kurbat. In particular, the presence of the institute of the widow-regent serves as a best ethnological argument against Persian/Iranian/Indo-Iranian linguality of the Scythians. Persian/Iranian/Indo-Iranian traditions are incompatible with a concept of female primacy. The Türkic institute of female regency is a direct consequence of a dualistic maternal-paternal martial union between two conjugal dynastic tribes, where the land, the country, the people belong to the maternal half, but are ruled by a selected candidate from a paternal half).
Herodotus IV 78.
Papai (Papei) - a god of the Scythian pantheon. Herodotus compared him with the Greek Zeus (Tr. Papai/Babai is “grandfather, ancestor, progenitor, primogenitor“. The Slavic grandmother “baba, babushka” ascends to the Tr. word Babai, with voiceless “p/b“, Papai. Of the extant 13 main Türkic languages, 8 have a voiced form “babai“, 3 have a voiceless form “papai“: Alataic, Chuvash, and Khakassian. There is no need for gerrymandering, Papai is a straightforward Türkic word, still alive and kicking with the same meaning).
Herodotus IV 59.
Tagi - Scythian word for “thread”; coincides with the same Türkic word. The Türkic cognate “telu” “bowstring, to stretch”, from Proto-Altaic “*telu” “bowstring, to stretch”, German “Draht” ~ “wire”. The Proto-Altaic, which happened to be exactly the same as Türkic, is so far the only language where the word can be etymologized, which excludes all branches of Indo-European and Tungustic families. The Eurasiatic spread of the word is amazing: : English “thread”, German “Draht”, Mongolian “tele”, Hotan “ttila”, New Persian “tel”, Kurdish “tel”, Ossetian “tel”, Khalka “tele”, Buryat “telür”, Kalmyk “tel-”, Evenk “telbe-”, Japanese “turu/tsurú”, etc. (Dybo A.V., Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks, Moscow, 2007, p. 806; Miziyev I.M. History of Karachai-Balkar people from ancient times to annexation by Russia//Mingi-Tau (Elbrus), 1994, no. 1 (Jan–Feb), Nalchik, Mingi-Tau Publishing, 1994, pp. 7–104, 206–213)
Targitai (Ταργιταος) - a mythical founder of the Scythian tribes. According to the legend, described by Herodotus, Targitai was a Hercules' son from a snake-legged goddess, a daughter of the river Borysthenes. The Scythians contemporary with Herodotus believed that Targitai lived exactly one thousand years before the Darius invasion (Unlike the Iranian “etymologies” that search for distant phonetic resemblances among dozens IE languages, and announce a victory irrespective of semantical meaning, the Türkic correspondences many times are obvious. We have two (2 ) Türkic prominent evidences called Targitai, both from the historical period. The first is Targutai of the “Sacred Legend“, a head of the Torgut tribe of the Keraits during Chingizkhan time, the other is a toponym Targitui in the Baikal area. Both are connected with the Türkic people. There is nothing mysterious about the mythical founder of the Scythian tribes, the Türkic folklore preserved dozens of cases when an origin of a tribe is attributed to a legendary pra-father, the best known of which is Oguz-Khan, modeled after the Eastern Hunnic leader Mode. The Targutai story not only neatly falls among other Türkic progenitor myths, but leads us further up and down the ladder. The Torgut tribe is associated with the Türkuts of the First Türkic Kaganate, and its etymology is straightforward Türk in plural: Türks. The suffix “-ai” is a formant of respect, used for personal names, the tribal name is Türkut, its leader is called Türkutai. The presence of the Türks in the N.Pontic was documented during the Classical Period: Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder; the presence of the “T'r” ethnonyms and toponyms in the Mediterranean area in the pre-Classical Period in particular, and of the Türkic words in general is ubiquitous. This also applies to the etymology of the name Targitai: more then one suggestion has been proposed, without independent corroboration they all are purely speculative, individual judgments which ones are more likely are entirely subjective and a specter of reasonable possibilities is quite wide. The best alternative seems to be Tr. “targi” with semantics of “creator, primogenitor“. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians“, p. 82, 198-206.
Since Targitai was a Scythian, we should expect his parents to be Scythians too. The Herodotus' second origin myth makes Targitai a son of Heracles who was searching for his horses. We have two versions of the name Heracles, the Greek Heracles, and the Etruscan Hercle. In Tr. kerəklə means search, and ker means to string (a bow), which Heracles did before giving the bow to Targitai. The amazing phonetical and semantical coincidence confirms that Heracles was originally a Türkic hero, common for Etruscans and Scythians, and adopted by Egyptians and Greeks. Ref. Z.Gasanov “Royal Scythians“, p. 280, and M.Zakiev).
Herodotus IV 5, 7.
Ysh, Ish - Scythian verb “freeze”. The word with the same meaning is in Karachai-Balkar and other Turk languages: Ysh (Miziyev I.M. History of Karachai-Balkar people from ancient times to annexation by Russia//Mingi-Tau (Elbrus), 1994, no. 1 (Jan–Feb), Nalchik, Mingi-Tau Publishing, 1994, pp. 7–104, 206–213).
Хэл шинжлэлийн харьцуулал: 
Assyrian Cuneiform Documents
A. Chay
Scythians//The Turks

Ankara, 2002, p. 155, ISBN 975-6782-55-2, 975-6782-56-0, ©
Cuneiform records from the Sus area
ScythianTurkishEnglishScythianTurkishEnglishScythianTurkishEnglish
aniratamirrepair (v)irchigichoğalincrease (v)vita--opposite (adj)
artaoturushseat (v)kuttakatadd (v)vurunvurushbeat (v)
daldudoldurfill (v)chagri--offspring
gikgökskyvalyolroad
Ref. A.D. Mordtmann, “Über die Keilinschriften zweiter Gattung“, ZDMG XXIV, 1870, p. 50
ScythianTranslation
to English
TürkicTürkic translation
to English
Comment
oior (eor)manermanfrom compound Oiorpata
patakillbatbeat, killfrom compound Oiorpata
arim1 (of 2)arymhalffrom compound Arimaspoi(eis)
spueyespueyefrom compound Arimaspoi(eis)
enar(e)castratedenarnotched, i.e. gelded, emasculatedfrom Grecicized Enareis
cannabishempkenevirhemp
Apipra-motherapimama
Ararriverarykstream
Ararriverarykstream
Asxifruit juiceakhshadishalso transcribed Aschi
Atafatheratafatherfrom coin legend Atail(s)
Ilcountryilcountryfrom coin legend Atail(s)
Iyrknomadiyrknomadfrom Iyrkae "nomadic Scythians"
Herros(sacred) landyerearth, land
ippamare (horse)yabuhorseippaka = mare's milk
Daixriveryayıqgushing (river)modern Yaik (Yayik)
spakodogköpek (kobak)dogfrom Ishpakai and Shpako